Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Database Guides: Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for All Laboratory Animals

Information about using the various databases in the A-Z Online Resources,


What is it?

Database covering references in all aspects of refinement of housing and handling conditions and environmental enrichment for all animals kept in research, testing and teaching institutions. This resource is a merger of two databases on refinement & enrichment. One database covers non-primates (Rodents, Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Ferrets, Farm Animals, Horses, Birds, Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles) and the other database covers primate laboratory animals (each database can also be searched separately). It covers published articles, abstracts, book chapters, books, photos, and videotapes. Database first established in October 2002 but includes references from before that date. Continually updated.

Refinement is the attempt to enhance animal welfare and control extraneous variables that may increase research data variability. Environmental enrichment is the provision of stimuli that promote the expression of species-appropriate behavioral and mental activities.

The database is produced by the Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, this is a non-profit charitable organisation with the aim of reducing the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans.

What is it for?

Use to find information on husbandry for all animals kept for research purposes.



How to search

Searches can be made by Citation, by Keywords or Full text articles

AND to narrow search: type your search terms and select the All Words (AND) option e.g. rats cages All Words

OR to broaden search: type your search terms and select the Any Words (OR) option e.g. stress distress Any Words

Truncation: type your search term, and select the Partial words (right truncation) option e.g. feed Partial Words will find feed, feeds, feeder, feeding, feedstuff, etc.

Browse the index option: you can browse the indexes alphabetically by selecting this option. You can link directly from index entries to the records. Selecting the Citation search will allow you to view the author list.

Full text?

Includes some links to full text articles.

If Query box is left blank, and Browse the Index and Full text articles both selected, then Execute Search provides a list of web addresses of the full text articles.

Other useful resources

See BIOSIS Previews.

Further help
For help click the Search Tips or Special Features buttons at the top of the Search screen in Environmental Enrichment database

Link to Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for All Laboratory Animals